1.      Areas of Interaction among peoples of centres of civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria. (a)          Religion and Culture

(b)         Warfare

2.      Areas of interaction among peoples of civilization in Pre-colonial Nigeria. (a)          Trade Relations

(b)         Conclusion.

3.      Differences that existed between centres of Civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria. (a)          Political Structure

(i)           Northern Political Organization.

(ii)         Western political Organization

(iii)        East and Niger Delta States Political Organization

4.      Differences that existed between centres of Civilization in Pre-colonial Nigeria. (i)           Culture and customs in the North (Hausa/Fulani)

(ii)         Culture and Customs in the west (Yoruba land)

(iii)        Culture and Customs in the east (Igbos and Niger Delta State).

5.      Differences that existed between centres of Civilization in Pre-colonial Nigeria. (a)          Religions belief practices

(b)         Features of African Traditional Religion (ATR)




The ancient Nigerian people interacted with one another in so many ways

Some of these ways includes;

  • Religion and culture
  • Warfare
  • Trade relations



Pre-colonial Nigerian societies generally had opportunities to interact with one another through which they gained cultural assimilation.

Marriage and Islamic festivities were social avenues that fostered unity in the last northern states and emirate in Yoruba land, there was unrestricted harvest of inter-state marriage due to cultural homogeneity (Harmony), tradition, religious beliefs, language and the belief in the Oduduwa common ancestry.

Most of their festivals are connected to their traditional root and major national gods such as Sango and Ife which were meant to be observed only by Yoruba Indigenes and not open to strangers. These festivals had many taboos and rituals designed to promote the spirit of brotherhood among the people.

The igbos and their Niger Delta brothers had homogeneous culture. There was interaction by ways of Cultural harmony,  languages,  social life and political organization.The large area experienced  inter marriage, because there were not much differences in their custom and traditions. Majority of the people spoke Igbo with noticeable different/dialects. They enjoyed common festivals and ceremonies involving marriage, birth, death, new yam rituals spiritual ceremonies (such as Ekpe, okonko  owu, Iwa-akwa etc) they equally believe in democracy, in individual efforts and survival.



The Northern people engaged in Inter-tribal wars of kingdom expansion, kingdoms and empires competed for power, trade routes and the desire to control trade relations. States, Kingdoms, empires and emirates fell at the expense of others. They often wedged war to colonize, control the economy of upcoming states considered less powerful for instance, Zaria constantly fought with Nupe and Jukun Kingdoms, Kano fought with kastina, and Borno over trade routes and the spread of Islam.

In Kano, Sokoto, Borno, Zaria and Bornu, there were powerful Cavalry soldiers and prosecuted war of conversion and territorial expansion. The Yorubas fought inter tribal wars as a result of kingdom expansion.

Religious wars affected them in the 19th century. Large scale wars such as the 1823 Afonja’s  peasent revolution and the Owu/Edubi wars of 1918 (Egba land uprising helped to disintegrate the Yoruba unity.These wars were not in line with the Ogun Jije Oath (an oath which forbade Yoruba’s from fighting themselves).

The Afonja’s war (led by Kankan Afonja ) allowed Islamic Jihadist to establish Islamic emirates in Yoruba land. The Edubi war allowed the British colonialists to conquer and establish direct rule in Yoruba land.

However, the new Oyo and Ibadan emerged in 1828 as a result of the Afonja’s war so as to preserve the cultural identity of the Yoruba nation.

The Igbos and the Niger Delta areas experienced wars. Theirs were mainly religiously motivated wars. There were war slaves. Later, wars were fought to sustain slave raids and the slave trade introduced by the Europeans merchants.




Discuss the benefits of interaction among peoples of centres of civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria.

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2 Thoughts to “Jss 2 History 3rd term Scheme of work with Notes & Assignment”

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