iii. Pastoral Farming : Pastoral farming essentially means the rearing or grazing of livestock, particularly cattle, sheep and goats.

Types of Pastoral Farming

There are three types of pastoral farming, namely, *Nomadic herding, *Ley farming and *Ranching.

  • Nomadic herding: this is practised by the Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria. It involves the moving of the herdsmen, known as *nomads, with their animals, usually cattle, from one place to another in search of greener pasture and water.

Advantages of Nomadic Herding

  1. Ensures constant food supply for the animals without the farmer laboring to establish the pastures.
  2. Varieties of palatable pastures are made available for the animals as they move from place to pppplplpla

           Disadvantages of Nomadic Herding

  1. High incidence of pests and diseases since there are no special effort by the farmer to control them
  2. Uncontrolled breeding, leading to the production of poor quality animals
  3. Animals and herdsmen are often exposed to wild animals and thieves
  4. Animals may sometimes go out of control, destroying crops in the farm
  • Ranching : this involves rearing the animals on a large expanse of land. A typical example in Nigeria is the Obudu Cattle RaRanch.

Advantages of Ranching

  1. Animals are better managed and protected from pests, diseases and thieves
  2. Pasture is available for the animals the year round
  3. Animals are more productive

            Disadvantages of Ranching

  1. It is capital intensive
  2. Requires large area of land
  3. Requires trained personnel to manage the ranch
  • Ley Farming : this combines pasture with crop production. After the pasture has been grown for about four years, it is tilled and used to cultivate crcro. It is otherwise referred to as *rotational pasture.

Advantages of Ley Farming

  1. Animal droppings serve as manure to the crops
  2. Crop residues are used for feeding animals

Disadvantages of Ley Farming

  1. High cost of fencing
  2. Destruction of soil structure and erosion may arise dub to over-grazing

Factors Affecting the Adoption of a Farming System

  1. Land Tenure System : excessive fragmentation of land will limit usage, restricting the farmer’s to small scale farming in order to maximize use of land.
  2. Environmental Factors: these include soil factors and climatic factors; they together determine the type of crops to be grown in an area.
  3. Social Factors: people’s taste, tradition and religion also determine the type of crops and animals produced in the area.



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