The solar system is made up of the sun, nine planets and other planetary goodies like comets, meteors, asteroids.The planets are Mercury, Venus, earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, uranus, Neptune, Pluto.


Sun-This the largest part of the solar system. It is a large sphere of glowing gas that radiates a lot of energy. It is about 150 million kilometer away from the earth. A small amount of solar energy reaches the earth in form of light and heat. It is the primary source of energy on earth. Green plants make use of sunlight during photosynthesis.



A large sphere of gas in space, seen in the sky at night. Stars do release radiant energy . At group of stars is called a constellation. The table below shows group of stars and. their time of appearance in the sky.


1.Orion-january to April

  1. Plough-may to July
  2. scorpius-august to Sept.
  3. pegasus-october to December


The earth

This is the third planets in the solar system. It is spherical in shape. The earth has outer structure and inner structure


The outer structure is made up of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere


1.Atmosphere-This is made of air,which is a mixture of gases that covers the earth.Air contains 78%of nitrigen,21% of oxygen,0.03% of carbon dioxide,0.97% of Noble gases.

2.The hydrosphere-This refers to the water component of the earth.This is made of water bodies like rivers,sea,ocean etc.This makes up 70%of the earth.

3.Biosphere-This is the biological part of the earth.It is made up of living things.


The internal or inner part of the Earth is the lithosphere,which is the solid part of the earth made of land.It covers 30% of the earth surface.The earth is the only planet that has temperature and atmosphere suitable for human life.Mercury and Venus are closer to the sun,so they are. very hot.The other planets do not receive. enough heat from the sun and are therefore too cold for existence of life.



1.Give substances that make up air and their percentages

2.Briefly explain the outer structure of earth.

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