All Saints Secondary School Oyigbo, Rivers State.

History Department.


Topic : The Almoravids and the fall of old Ghana empire .

The Almoravids were the major external factor that contributed to the fall of old Ghana empire.

Who were the Almoravids?

The word ” Almoravid” is derived from the Arabic Al- Murabitin which means ” people of the monastery” . It was used to describe a fanatical sect of Muslims which sprang up in the North- Western region of the western Sudan in the 11th century.

The Almoravid movement was primarily a movement for the purification and spread of Islam by a holy war , or jihad.


Why did they invade Ghana?

The Almoravids had religious, commercial and political motives for the invasion of Ghana.

  1. The Almoravids invaded Ghana because it was a pagan kingdom and it’s king had resisted conversion to Islam. Though they tolerated Muslims living or trading in the empire.
  2. The Almoravids wanted to convert the Ghana emperor and his pagan subjects to Islam by conquest.
  3. The Almoravid Berbers wanted to regain control of the southern trans Saharan trade route which they lost when Audoghast, their principal caravan centre , was captured by Ghana in AD 990.
  4. The Almoravids were jealous of the prosperity of Ghana and so invaded that empire to acquire it’s wealth and take over it’s prosperous trade.
  5. The Almoravid Berbers wanted to put a halt to Ghana’s Northern expansion, which was a serious threat to their political Independence.


Effects of the Almoravids conquest of old Ghana empire

  1. The Almoravid conquest resulted in the disintegration of the empire.
  2. The Almoravids war aganist Ghana diverted both manpower and attention from the soil. Agriculture in the empire was thus neglected and ruined.
  3. The war caused a cessation of the trans Saharan trade. Since the Ghana emperor and his subjects were dependent on this trade for their wealth, they therefore became impoverished.
  4. The military defeats suffered by Ghana weakened the strength of it’s army and rendered it incapable of suppressing the rebellious vassal states.
  5. Following the Almoravid capture of kumbi Saleh in 1076, the Muslim merchants fled to walata in 1224 and established a new commercial centre.



  1. Mention and explain five factors that contributed to the decline and fall of the old Ghana empire.

Submit assignment at the school’s security post

Download Document Here: JSS 3 HISTORY LESSONS




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