WEEK 9 Lesson
SUBJECT : English Language
TOPIC : Complex Tense Form
CLASS : SS1
MEANING OF TENSE AND COMPLEX TENSE
Tense is the form of the verb used to indicate the time of the action, the continuance of the action or the completeness of the action. The time of the action in the present – I see, past – I saw, future – I shall see.
Tense do not just tell us whether something is in past, present or future. They also tell us whether the action is habitual, completed or going. That’s the aspect part of tense.
Complex tenses are those in which English combines aspects. For example, the perfect and progressive but other aspects are also combined. They are represented by the main verb in some of its form (a participle sometimes) and the auxiliary verb. They are made up of more than one verb.
RECOGNIZING AND USING VARIOUS COMPLEX TENSE FORM IN ENGLISH
To recognize the complex tense form in English, the students should know the examples of main verbs and auxiliary verbs we have and the formation of tenses.
The main auxiliary verb are to be, to have and to do. They appear in the following forms.
To be : am, is, are, was, were, being, been, will be.
To have : has, have, had, will have.
To do : does, do, did, will do.
There’s another kind of auxiliary verb called a modal auxiliary verb (or modal verb). The modal auxiliary verbs are can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, and would.
The main verbs are sit, stand, walk, move, forget, eat, write, build etc.
To form tenses, the students should combine main verbs with auxiliary verbs depending on the type of verb form, whether the action expressed by the verb is continuous or still in progress (progressive) or whether it has been completed (perfective).
Examples – Tense
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
This indicates that an action is still on at the time of speaking or writing. A primary auxiliary verb (to be) is used with the ing form of the main verb. Formation – Subject + to be (are) + verb + ing. They are sleeping.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
This shows that an action which started and was completed in the past still has a link with the present. In this case, the auxiliary verb has or have are used with the past participle form of the main verb. Formation – Subject + has/have + verb + en. The man has left for Abuja. I have eaten the mango.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
This expresses an action that began in the past and it still continue. This should not be confused with present continuous tense which is on at the time of speaking. In present continuous tense, the action may not be going on at the moment of writing or speaking. It only shows that an action has not been concluded. In this case, the auxiliary verb have/has + to be (been)+verb +ing . Formation – Subject +have + been + verb +ing. I have been teaching for nine years (I may not be in class teaching at the moment)
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
This is used to express the following. i. An action that was going on in the past, at a particular time. ii. That action that was going on in the past and interrupted by another action. In this case the auxiliary verb to be (was/were) + verb + ing + adverbial. Formation – Subject + was + verb + ing + adverbial. I was teaching when the Principal sent for me.
PAST PERFECT TENSE
This is used to indicate that two or more actions took place in the past but one happened or was completed before the other(s). The action that happened first is expressed in the past perfect tense. While the other action is expressed in the simple past tense. In this case, the auxiliary verb had + past participle of verb to be is used. Formation – Subject + had + verb + preposition. The boy had died before help reached him.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
This is used to show that an action had been completed at a particular time in the past that is under discussion or analysis now. To form this, we will use auxiliary verb had +to be (been) +verb+ing (verb present ing) Formation – Subject + had + been + verb + ing + adverbial. We had been pray ing since 1997 before God intervened in 2002.
This is used to show or indicate an action that will be performed in the future. To form this, we use auxiliary to be +verb +ing (verb present) Formation – Subject + am + go + ing. I am going to church.
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
This is used to express an action expected to be completed at a specific future time. This means that the future perfect tense is used to say that something will have been completed or finished, by a certain time in the future. To form this, we use auxiliary verb will have + verb (past participle) Formation – Subject + will/shall + have + verb + ed . We will have graduated from college in five years.
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
This is used to show that an action has been completed or taking place at that particular time.
To form this, we use auxiliary will/shall + have +been+verb (to be used ing i.e present) Formation – Subject + shall + have + been + verb (ing/en) + adverbial. The men will have eaten by now.
At noon, we shall have been taking the examination for three hours.
IDENTIFICATION OF COMPLEX TENSE FORM.
In order to identify the different complex tense form where ever you meet them in use (sentences) you have to study their formation properly, know the types and numbers of auxiliary verb and the main verb (whether present, past or past participle) that were used in the formation of the sentences.
1i. She/He comes to school everyday.
- You/We/They come to school everyday.
When you take a look at these sentences, you will notice that they contain only the main verb come (s). This shows that the sentences are simple tense form.
- I am coming – present continuous tense (to be +verb+ing) the sentence above is in a complex tense form. It comprises of two auxiliary verb and the main verb.
- I have been coming – present perfect continuous tense (have +to be +verb +ing)
- By Sunday, he will have been feeding their goats for three days (shall + have + been + verb to be + verb + ing) – future perfect continuous tense.
USING THEM CORRECTLY IN SENTENCES.
- They are sleeping early – present continuous tense
- They have slept early – present perfect tense
- She was phoning them – past continuous tense
- She had phoned them – past perfect tense
- They have been sleeping early – present perfect continuous tense
- She had been trying to phone them before they arrived – present perfect continuous tense
- She will buy a new house next year – future tense
- She will be speaking at the meeting tonight – future continuous tense.
- She will have ended the speech by 10pm – future perfect tense.
- By 10pm, she will have been speaking for two hours – future perfect continuous tense.
Use the sentence below to form these complex tenses.
I do my homework.
- Present Continuous Tense — I am doing my homework.
N/B – Number 1 has already been done for you.
- Present Perfect Continuous Tense —
- Past Perfect Tense —
- Past Perfect Continuous Tense —
- Future Tense —
- Future Continuous Tense —
- Future Perfect Tense —
- Future Perfect Continuous Tense —
Submit assignment at the school’s security post
Download Document Here: SS1 English Language wk9