All Saints Secondary School Oyigbo, Rivers State.

History Department


Week Nine

Topic; Major Centralized States in Precolonial Nigeria ( Nupe Kingdom)


The Origin and Early History of the Nupe Kingdom

The Nupe people, today live in Niger state of Nigeria. The kingdom was one of the seven bastard Hausa states. It is said to have been founded in the sixteenth century by the son of an Idah prince named Isoede (1523-1531).

Isoede united the various Nupe ethnic groups into a state under him. Having established his capital at a place called Nupeko , he extended his powers to the north and south conquering other groups beyond Nupe land.

Isoede was renowned for his magic powers and with this, he established himself as a divine monarch. He is said to have introduced the arts of canoe building and smithing.

Under another great Nupe ruler , Etsu ( King) Muazu ( 1778- 1795) , the Nupe Kingdom reached the highest height of it’s power.

Another ruler , Etsu Mamma (1795-1796), founded another capital, Raba.


The Decline and Fall of the Nupe Kingdom

The decline of the Nupe Kingdom set in after the death of Etsu Mamma ( 1795-1796). Disputes over succession resulted in the splitting of the kingdom under two rival Etsu’s ; Jimada ( 1796-1805) with his headquarters at Jimi ( Gbara) and Majuja 2 ( 1796-1810) with his capital at Raba. In 1810, during the Sokoto jihad, a fulani jihadist and preacher , Mallam Dendo , came to Nupe Kingdom and soon gathered round himself ardent fulani and hausa Muslims. Then, taking advantage of the disputed succession in the Nupe Kingdom, he seized power and became ruler of much of the Nupe land, but allowed the rival Etsus to reign as puppets.


After his death in 1831, trouble broke out again. Eventually, the rival Etsus were humbled by Mallam Dendo’s successor, Usman Zaki, who became the first fulani Etsu of Nupe Kingdom and ruled Nupe Kingdom from Bida.



  1. Discuss the origin of the Igala people of Kogi state.

Submit assignment at the school’s security post

Download Document Here: JSS 1 HISTORY NOTES


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