Home Economics

Topic: Manufacture of fabric.

  Each fabric is manufactured through various processes.

  Manufacturing process of cotton fibers;

    Cotton fabrics are processed from the bolls by the following steps

1- Ginning; this is separating or removing cotton fibres from the seeds. The hairs left on the seeds after ginning are called linters.

2-Bailing; the ginned cotton is pressed in bales which are sent to factory or mill.

3-Cleaning; this is removing impurities in the cotton in the mill.

4-Carding;This is separating the shorter fibres from the longer ones. The longer ones are formed with thick ropes which are called sliver.

5-Combing;This is the process of removing more short fibres.

6-Drawing; In this process the ropes are twisted and made ready for spinning.

7-Spinning; This is making the twisted fibres     into yarn or thread.

8-Dyeing;In this process,the yarn is bleached or dyed into different colours.

9-Weaving;The yarns are used to produce fabrics. 


   Linen is processed from the stem of flax plant by the following steps.

1-Retting; This is the process of softening the flax stems by letting them rof in ponds or special retting tanks to separate the fibres from the stem.

2-Breaking and scothing: These are mechanical treatments that break and remove the woody matter and impurities from the fibres.

3-Combing;This is passing the fibres through special series of combs to separate long fibres from short ones.

4-Spinning;This is drawing the fibres into slivers and twisting them for strength, thereby, producing yarns. The yarns are then woven into fabric.

5-The yarn can be dyed before weaving.


    The wool fibre are processed into two forms which are-

1-Worsted yarn;This is made from long fibres.

2-Woolen yarn; This is made from short fibres. The major steps for the manufacturing of both forms as;

1-Clipping;This is cutting the hair or fleece of the sheep.The fleece is then packed in bales and transported to the factories.

2-Sorting; This is grading and separating fibres according to length.

3-Scouring;This is washing the fibres in soapy alkaline water to remove dirt and grease.

4-Carbonizing; The process of removing all vegetable matter from the fibres by treatment with acid, heat and pressure.

5-Carding; This process separate the matted fibres.

6-Spinning; this is twisting the fibres into worsted or woolen yarns.

7-Weaving; The process of making the wool fabric.


   A silkworm spins filaments (the fibre) for its cocoon. It then turns into pulp. The fibres are then held together by slik gum. Before the pupa changes into a moth, the cocoon is put into boiling water to soften the gum then the silk fibre is then drawn from the cocoon. The raw silk is reeled up into skeins and packed into small bundles called books before being processed by the following steps;

1. This is the process of twisting silk fibers to form a strong yarn.

2-Degumming; this is the removing the silk gum from the yarn by boiling in soapy water.

3-Weaving; this is constructing the yarn into fabric. The silk fabric       can be made heavier by treating it with metallic salts in a process known as weighing.


1-Give the meaning of fabric finishes.

2-Mention and explain five finishes that can be given to fabrics during manufacturing process.

To be submitted on Monday 22nd June 2020 after Home Economics Mock Exam.

Download Document Here: JSS 3 HOME ECONOMICS

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