Hausa states were of two distinct groups. The first group consisted of seven states called the “Hausa Bokwoi” states. The other groups consisted of the remaining seven states, and were called the “Seven Illegitimate or Banza States”.

The word “Banza” is an Hausa word meaning Bastard. The Hausa “Bokwoi” states includes; Daura, Gabir, Zaria, Katsina, Kano, Rano and Bilina.

The “Banza” or Bastard state includes the Yoruba town of llorin, Yauri, Jakun, Kebbi, Zamfara, Nupe and Yaura.

At the Beginning of the 19th century, those fourteen states were forced to quit the political theatre of West Africa. This was as a result of the Sokoto Jihad declared and fought by a tribe called “the Fulani” against Hausa states.

The Hausas were defeated because they were weak and disunited. This defeat marked the end of what used to be the fourteen ancient Hausa states.

Download here Jss 1 History. Wk 2



Discuss the weakness of the Hausa states.

Submit Via WhatsApp on : 07067318898






The Northern states established flourishing trade relations by which they were able to push further their inter-tribe relations with Oyo, Benin, Igala, Itsekiri in the west, the Igbos in the East. Through the chain of territorial cooperation, they established trade links with Mali, Ghana, Cote-divore and with North Africa.

The births of Islam encouraged inter states trade and in few cases, inter tribal marriage in line with the Islamic tenants. Generally, their economy revolved around common agricultural products, blacksmithing, leather works, art and craft textile technology, the trans Saharan trade and to some extent fishing.

On  the western and forest zone, the Yoruba kingdom forged an internal unity which promoted internal and external trade and commerce. lle-ife provided a rallying point for commercial exchange for the Oduduwa descendants. The region was naturally positioned to enjoy borderline patronage. They shared borders with Benin empire which gave them access to the Niger Delta and the Igbo trade and cultural links.

Through the Igala, Nupe, Bornu and Kwara, they were able to establish trade and cultural link with the vast north. They interacted with Ghana, Benin republic and Togo through Badagry and Lagos. Being a major gateway to international trade and commerce, it was insulated (shielded) from inter-tribal wars to dominance. It therefore enjoyed relative peace.


The Igbos of the hinterland mainly restricted themselves to trading with the Niger Delta states which served them as their gateway to external trades involving the Yoruba’s, parts of the North and Cameroons. The Niger Deltans served as middle men and equally became a buffer that shielded the hinter land Igbo’s from uncertainties. The area was rich in agricultural and forestry products, fishing arts and crafts, salves and palm products which attracted the merchant in the 19th Century.

The riverine nature of the Niger Delta States brought the Europeans into contact with them. This led to the development of Calabar, Bonny and Asaba sea ports and cities.



There were signs to show that there was social and economic interactions among the pre-colonial centres of civilization. These interactions were at some points direct and at some points indirect. These areas of interaction were prominent in the areas of trade, marriage, cultural ties religions, warfare, common ancestral ties/origin, language, arts, crafts and migration.

Each society had a way of linking itself to the outside world. Some states served as buffer states which facilitated the trans-Atlantic and Trans-Saharan trades. These buffer states experienced wars, trade benefits and integration of civilization.

They easily became advanced and developed into cities in modern day Nigeria. They include Kano, Jos, Igbo Ukwu/Onitsha, Benin City, Ibadan, Lagos, Calabar, Bonny/Port Harcourt, Ile-Ife, Warri among others.

The coming of the white men suddenly changed the pace, tune, volume and directions of these relationships by producing new ways of trade commerce, social exchange, governments and technology.

Download here JSS 2 History Notes (wk 2)



Discuss the problems encountered by centres of civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria.  

Submit Via WhatsApp on : 07067318898




  1. Excursion to historical sites
  2. Exhibition
  3. Libraries
  4. Cultural festivals
  5. Museums
  6. Excursion to Historical sites:

We can access sources of history by visiting historical sites. E.g Igbo Ukwu archaeological sites, Ojukwu Bunker etc.



  1. Exhibition:

We can access sources of history by going to exhibition centre’s, where the remains of history or artifacts are displayed.

  1. Libraries:

We can have access to written history by visiting the libraries, where historical text books, historical maps etc. are kept.

  1. Cultural Festivals

During the cultural festivals of sources communities, historical materials or artifacts are displayed. We can access sources of history by attending some of these festivals.

  1. Museums

We can access sources of history by visiting the museums to see artifacts or antiquities, historical materials or remains of history. Artifacts or antiquities are kept in the museums.

Download Here  JSS 3 HISTORY NOTES (WK 2)


Mention and explain the differences between history and storytelling.

Submit Via WhatsApp on : 07067318898

Leave a Reply