SS 1 FOOD & NUT. (3RD TERM)
Legumes are the edible seeds of leguminous
plants eg lentils, peas, soyabeans, groundnuts.
Legumes contain a high percentage of
carbohydrates and also contain a fairly good supply
of vegetable protein. The protein in legumes are of
low biological value. They are rich in thiamine and
are a good of iron, they contain very little water. They
do not contain Vitamin C eg dry legumes but the
fresh green ones are good source of Vitamin C.
Legumes used for food can be grouped into two
Pulses are the dried edible seeds of cultivated
legumes eg peas, beans and lentils.Oil seeds are those legumes used primarily
for their oil content eg groundnut, soyabeans.
The oil may be extracted by pressing or by
solvent extraction. The residue after extraction is
called cake and is a good source of proteins.
Legumes contain mineral elements such as
calcium, phosphorus, iron. They are not easily
digested, therefore should be cooked thoroughly
to soften the cotyledon. They contain antinutritional factors that reduce their utilization in
the body eg of the anti-nutritional factors are
trypsin inhibitors, urease, saponins. They are
removed by heating.