ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMAL
ANATOMY: This is the branch of agricultural biology that deals with the study of the form and structure of the body.
PHYSIOLOGY: This refers to the function of the forms and structures of the body.
PARTS OF FARM ANIMALS
This is divided into four major groups as follows,
- Thoracic cavity
iii. Abdominal Cavity
HEAD: This is the upper part of the body. The major organs found in the head region are brains, eyes, tongue, ears, mouth and nose.
THORACIC CAVITY: The thoracic cavity refers to the chest region of the body. The major organs found her are heart, lungs and trachea.
ABDOMINAL CAVITY: This refers to the stomach region of the body. The Organs in those region are pancreas, liver, uterus, stomach, oviduct, kidneys etc.
LIMBS: The limbs include the fore limbs and the hind limbs. The limbs are used for walking.
Some systems that maintains the body include,
- Digestive system
- Circulatory system
- Respiratory system
- Reproductive system
Digestive system: This refers to all organs and tissues associated with breaking down food in the body. It includes the teeth or beak, tongue, alimentary canal, and the associated glands including the secretory enzymes.
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON THE ALIMENTARY CANAL OR DIGESTIVE TRACTS
Farm animals are grouped into two main classes,
- Monogastrics or non-ruminant animals
- Polygastrics or Ruminant animals
MONOGASTRICS OR NON RUMINANT ANIMALS: These animals possess only one stomach and do not chew cud. These non-ruminants have simple stomach and cannot digest cellulose and fibers properly. Examples are the pig, rabbit, and poultry
POLYGASTRICS OR RUMINANT ANIMALS: These farm animals which possess four chambered stomach or complex stomach, hence the chew cud. The four chambered stomach includes the Rumen, Reticulum, Omasium and Abomesum.
- Explain the circulatory system in farm animals.
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